For me, static typing serves two purposes: First, compile time checking that arguments to calls are the appropriate type, and second, static discovery of code usage, dependency and wire-up. The former is about correctness and safety, and constitutes the "free unit testing" the compiler provides (which statically-typed detractors deride and statically-typed proponents celebrate). The latter is about productivity. It allows me to quickly navigate through a complex codebase, find dead code, track down unintended coupling, etc. In many ways, the discovery aspects is the greater reason why I like statically-typing. And that's why I consider Convention over Configuration a paradigm that should be approached with caution.
If you are in a dynamically typed language, discovery relies on reading code and documentation. While your code may be expressed as symbols not strings, navigation of those symbols is often impossible until runtime. You have nothing that's guarding you from your own typos, so all code is equally suspect and you are likely to manually or automatically test basic syntax a lot more. With that premise, automatic configuration of instances and wireup doesn't complicate the existing testing burden significantly but greatly cuts down on typing and code size, i.e. it's a good thing.
Now in statically-typed land things are different: Compiler checked syntax can lull you into complacency, especially if you enjoy refactorings that track down on the symbolic rather than search/replace level. Renaming something to fit the context can quickly break mappings or wire-ups relying on convention. Don't get me wrong, config files for mapping or wire-up is no better — I am advocating mapping and wire-up in code as much as possible. The minutes spent on initial coding are worth hours in maintainability.
I'm not going to discount Convention over Configuration in totallity — I think it is immensely useful at code boundaries, such as mapping schemas to entities, or Urls to controller actions. These touch points already are on the code edge where represenation is leaving the homogenous domain, so using convention only provides naming guidance and reduces tedious scaffolding.
So, my advice is, don't use Convention over Configuration to wire up your code internals unless the relationships are obvious and/or well covered by tests. But do favor it for the plumbing required to connect your code to outside input and output sources.